Prompt: How are messages embedded in visual culture? How, in turn, are photographs, videos, illustrations, performances, graphic novels, sculptures, and technological innovations - and more - used to communicate an idea or position? And what might it mean to make something that doesn't fit into any one category as we know it?

Kazakhstan was part of Russian rule for an extensive period and as a result the culture changed. Several of the superstitions that were once part of the old culture were not part of the new culture. New superstitions replaced old ones, and now are integrated into the new culture. It is evident that Kazakhstan’s integration into the Soviet Union has had a lasting impact on Kazakh culture that is still observable today – with many superstitions of Russian origin now having a place in common Kazakh folklore. Kazakhstan, located in Central Asia, is a very superstitious country. While the true definition of a superstition varies between regions—often described as beliefs that are motivated by fear. Contrary to this popular belief, Bronisław Malinowski, a very notable Polish Anthropologist, believes that superstition can actually reduce anxiety.1 Superstitions usually revolve around beliefs that people have that relate to supernatural powers.2 Not all superstitions have to relate to supernatural powers but the majority of them do. They vary from country to country but there are interesting instances where a collective of people around the world share similar superstitions. It is easy to understand the meaning of the word superstition but the real question that seems to puzzle many is: Why do people believe in superstitions in the first place?


1 Vyse, Stuart A.. Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition (Updated Edition). Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press, USA, 2013. Accessed March 7, 2015. ProQuest ebrary.

2 Read, Carveth. The Origin of Man and His Superstitions. Toronto: Cambridge University Press, 1848. 374.